IST-IAS team presents papers as part of a roundtable on the South Caucasus at INTPOLSEC International Security Congress 2023
Rivalry and Cooperation in South Caucasus: Prospects and Challenges
With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Caucasus has become a region that has long been characterized by instability. To accurately assess the internal dynamics of the region, it is imperative to consider regional and sub-regional balances. In the South Caucasus inter-state conflict emerges as much a determining factor as separatist movements. The recent conflicts between Russia and Georgia in 2008, and Azerbaijan and Armenia in 2022 have changed the overall balance in the South Caucasus. Paradoxically, the emerging balances and mushrooming order also open avenues for regional cooperation. That is to say, the possibilities of new regional cooperation in the post-conflict period have come to the fore after consecutive regional conflicts. In this context, cooperation between Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Turkey is of vital importance. Especially the peace between Armenia and Azerbaijan after 2022 has changed the balance and opened a window of opportunity for new cooperation.
Comparing/Contrasting Roles and Functions of the Parliament in Different Types of Government
8 February 2024
By Cenap Çakmak
This article compares and contrasts the role of parliament as a legislative body in parliamentary, presidential, and semi-presidential governance systems. To that end, it first identifies the general roles that a legislative body is expected to play in a functioning democracy, referring to the principle of separation of powers and how such roles are described in the text of a specific constitution.The paper then situates the parliament and its activities within the context of the operation of political regimes and administration in the three types of government, with the goal of emphasizing the overlaps between these regimes in terms of the functions that the parliament performs. The paper's overall discussion then moves on to an elaboration of the differences in how the parliament interacts with other bodies, i.e., the executive and judicial branches, under various types of political systems, in order to gain a better understanding of the nature of the relationship between the parliament and other state organs. Finally, the paper discusses the findings to highlight the differences and similarities between the parliamentary, presidential, and semi-presidential systems, with a focus on the role of parliament and its relationship with the other major bodies of the constitutional structure.
Wage Structure and Inflation-Wage Relationship in Turkey
24 January 2024
By Büşra Çil
The Turkish economy's structural features amplify the impact of wage increases on economic balance. In Turkey, minimum wage earners constitute around 40% of the workforce, a much higher percentage than in European countries. The large number of workers earning minimum wage is a concern for both employers and employees. Furthermore, wage increases are a crucial factor in inflation, which is the most significant issue facing the Turkish economy in the short term. Wage levels have a positive impact on price movements through demand and supply channels. Therefore, the rate of increase in the minimum wage is closely monitored by all segments of society except for employers and employees. Analyzing the relationship between the wage structure and indicators such as inflation in Turkey is one of the factors that facilitates the predictability of the economy in the short and medium term.
Policy of the United States
23 November 2023
By Zehra Korkmaz-Kökdere
The policy of containment was one of the two ways in which the United States was able to demonstrate and even use its power during the Cold War against the threat of the Soviet Union. While the first of these power strategies was nuclear deterrence, which was based on the country's military power as well as the political, psychological, and perceptual dimensions of power, the second power strategy developed during this period was containment. In this article, the focus will be on analyzing and understanding the main components of the containment policy by showing the strategies developed by the US during the Cold War. In doing so, it would be possible to explain the foreign policy attitudes of the US during this period, which were mainly derived from the speeches of George Kennan, who could be considered as the founding father of this policy.
The Test of International Law with Israel
28 October 2023
By Cenap Çakmak
International law as a construct and practice that purports to contain inter-state conflicts has been moribund for some time, even if it works well in areas that do not concern state security. Along with it, the so-called rule-based international order, which was arrogantly proclaimed in the 1990s as history’s final destination, is also suffering a severe period of demise. In this conceptual and practical unraveling, it is not those who were given a role in the periphery when it was first constructed, and thus could voice potentially legitimate objections, but rather the main actors such as the US and Russia, Israel, which was given a blank check, and those who generate coercive legitimacy through constant and uninterrupted security concerns, that play a decisive role.
The Underacknowledged Conflict
23 November 2023
By Habiba Hesham Kotb
Over time, conflicts evolve with individuals and societies. Conflicts arise in various forms, such as territorial disputes, economic and political instability, resource scarcity, and ideological disputes. However, intra-state conflicts are the most prevalent. For conflicts to become active, the involved parties must recognize them, and they must then be taken to an international stage for resolution. With the growth of globalization, the spill-over effect plays a significant role in conflicts where inactive actors still participate. This could be one of the reasons why alliances and organizations are formed between geographically close countries because problematic neighbors are undesirable. However, climate change is a conflict involving everyone.